Supercharger is normally an air compressor which when used increases the pressure of the air that is supplied to the engine of any type but mostly considered as internal combustion engine. The main purpose of super charger is to power up combustion of gas in the combustion chamber by sending more oxygen to the combustion chamber. It makes the fuel to burn more efficiently which in turn increases the work done by the engine.
The power of the supercharger can also be provided in the means of mechanical terms by providing a belt, gear, shaft and a chain which are connected to the Engine crankshaft. When the power applied to the internal combustion engine that is to the car is via exhaust gas, then the supercharger is known as turbocharger. It’s very common to say the death and supercharger is completely related to mechanical and also automobile engineering.
The world’s first supercharger was actually tested and made by Dugald Clerk, who used his supercharger for the first engine type of two stroke in the year 1878. The supercharger got a German patent for the internal combustion engine in the year 1855. There are no other types of supercharger for any type of boosting present for the car in those days. Later on Louis Renaul invented centrifugal supercharger in the France, in the year 1902. The first supercharger race car was built in Pennsylvania in the year 1908 which tasted the speed limit of 160 kilometer per hour.
Mercedes called for the first type of cars having supercharger and these were introduced in the year 1921. There are two models of Mercedes having superchargers in the year 1921 and the type of supercharger is roots supercharger. The two models of Mercedes are 6 / 25 / 40 and 10 / 40 / 65. Those models especially named after comparison models and this made the origin of Mercedes Benz which we all know today as a luxury and a sports model. There comes the best type of supercharger that is the screw type compressor in the year 1878. The same here on August 16th there comes another supercharger after completely modifying and improving all the negatives from its original designs. The design completely resembles the root file compressor but it’s clearly shown that the screws were with 180 degrees of twist along full length.
Supercharger itself, any type, with respect to the number of lobes and many others have two main type of superchargers. This classification is done as per the method of gas transfer to the internal combustion engine. They are positive displacement type of compressor and dynamic compressors. Positive displacement type of compressor deliver constant speed at all the kinds of engine speed. But dynamic compressor do not deliver Treasure at low speed but only deliver it full pressure in high speeds.
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Now we can see about positive displacement compressors or pumps. The major types of positive displacement compressors or pumps are classified into four types. They are
Positive Displacement type Superchargers-
1. Roots type supercharer
2. Lysholm Twin Screw type supercharger
3. Sliding Vane type supercharger
4. Scroll type supercharger
Dynamic compressors completely rely on the speed of the Age 2 high speed and then it exchanges the velocities of pressure only by diffusing and also by making it slow. There are three major types of dynamic compressor and are shown below.
1. Centrifugal type supercharger
2. Multi stage axial flow supercharger
3. Pressure wave Supercharger
They are all so different types of supercharger drives. They are given below.
1. Belt drive
The belt drive has different types of belts. It can be V type belt, synchronous belt and flat belt.
2. Direct drive belt
3. Gear drive belt
4. Chain drive belt
There are some limitations of supercharger. While using a supercharger, as the pressure of the gas increases its temperature also increases. If the temperature of the internal combustion engine increases it becomes a major limiting factor in engine performance rating. This is the major disadvantage of supercharger for using in internal combustion engine and it can be rectified by using inter coolers directly by the side of the internal combustion engines. Specially in the cars, while using the supercharger in a sunny day, it may cause a major problem when an excessive level of boosting is required for the car. This factor also causes detonation of the fuel air mixture in the internal combustion engine.
As of now we have see about supercharging. But now we talk about the three main categories of the supercharger, especially used for automobiles. They are centrifugal turbochargers which are driven directly from the exhaust gases and centrifugal supercharger with her driven directly by the engine with the help of a belt drive. The third one is the special one and is positive displacement pumps which can be named as the roots, twin screw and TVS blowers.
Another important aspect of supercharger is twin charging. In both the years 1985 and 1986 the world rally Championship was incorporated with both types of supercharger which are belt driven supercharger and exhaust driven turbocharger. The design of this car uses a very complex circuits of both induction and exhaust systems as well as the electromagnetic systems. The boost was entirely derived from the turbocharger and supercharger. This was only in the middle of the range boost was derived from the word systems but at highest revolutions of the engine the system got itself disconnected to the drive of the supercharger automatically and isolated it. This situation maybe approach greater complexity and impacted especially on the cars in all the events further. Example of the Twin charger is the Volkswagen TSI engine which is a 1.4 liter direct injection motor which uses both supercharger and turbocharger in its engine next to the internal combustion engine.
They’re almost 611 supercharger stations for Tesla as of 2016 only in the parts on North America. All the Tesla cars and Mercedes cars are being equipped with Superchargers which increases the knowledge of every user.
Advantages of supercharger-
1. It increases the horsepower to any type of engine and is a quick solution to boost engine speed.
2. The supercharger biggest advantage over any type of turbocharger is that it does not experience any type of lag. The power delivery is very fast and immediately driven by the engine.
3. It gives a good power even when the engines Revolution per minute is very low when compared to the turbocharger.
4. This is very effective with very low cost.
Disadvantages of supercharger-
1. The biggest disadvantage of supercharger is they run off engine belt by powering with air pump with another source of air pump, which are significantly less efficient than the turbocharger.
2. The internal parts of the engine will be exposed to very high pressure which will call the detonation of engine in the times of risk.