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Different types of lasers ( Solid State Laser, Gas Laser, Helium-Neon Laser and Carbon dioxide Laser )

DIFFERENT TYPES OF LASERS-

 
What are the different types of lasers?

There are different types of lasers which produce highly directive beams of optical or infrared radiation. Few of them as follows:

1. Solid state laser 

2. Gas laser 

3. Helium-neon laser 

4. Carbon dioxide laser


1. Solid State Laser-

The most common materials for a solid state laser are Ruby, Neodymium (Nd) – glass and Neodymium – Yttrium Aluminum  and Garmet (Nd — YAG). It is fabricated into thin rods with high optical tolerance on its ends. In this type of lasers, the energy is penetrated into the material by producing a high intensity light flux. This flux is absorbed by the laser material and transformed into collimated laser beam. Xenon filled flash lamps are used for generating intensity light flux.

Advantages-

1. The wastages occurred in Solid State Laser are very less.
2. Continuous and Pulsed output can be made to present from Solid State Laser.
3. The construction of Solid State Laser is very simple.
4. The cost of Solid State Laser is low and so economical in nature.


2. Gas Laser-

The gases that are involved in gas lasers are Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen and Helium. These gases are recirculated and replenished through the glass discharge tube. Nitrogen acts as an intermediate between the vibrational and electrical energy of CO. Helium acts as a coolant for the gas mixture which re-excites the molecules. When these gases generate electrical energy, photons are generated due to absorption of energy by C0 2 molecules. In an axial flow C0 2 gas laser, large amount of gas volume is used. The beam is reflected several times by positioning resonator mirrors before it emerges from the output mirror. This is a typical axial flow C0 2 gas laser.

Advantages-

1. The active material in Gas laser is very high.
2. The active material used in this laser is cheap.
3. The active material in gas laser is impossible to destroy.
4. Heat generated can be eliminated quickly with ease.


3. Helium Neon Laser-

Helium Neon laser consists of a cathode to the left and anode to the right. Anode consists of a high reflector that reflects the laser with high extent. Inside the cylindrical tube like structure, there exists a Laser Bore tube and a Helium Neon gas reservoir. High reflector reflects the laser via laser bore tube consisting of a Helium Neon gas reservoir through output coupler. This is the working of Helium Neon Laser.
The cavity lengths of Helium Neon lasers usually ranges from 15  cm to 50 cm but sometimes they may extend to 1 meter. Red Helium Neon laser is mostly used in all industrial and scientific areas.

Advantages-

1. Helium Neon Lasers are widely used.
2. Helium Neon Lasers are very cheap.
3. Helium Neon Lasers has an ease in the operation.
4. Helium Neon Lasers have long coherence length.


4. Carbon Dioxide Laser-

Carbon Dioxide Laser is the precious and important type of laser used industrially. Carbon Dioxide Laser is generally used for cutting operations like contour cutting and welding operations like deep penetration welding. Carbon Dioxide Laser is preferred as the wavelength of carbon dioxide is long and will be absorbed by almost all the types of materials. Carbon Dioxide Laser is also used for surgeries of soft tissues.

Advantages-

1. Carbon Dioxide Laser is flexible for any type of operation.
2. Carbon Dioxide Laser can be used for further processes like heating, welding even after process in other equipment.
3. Carbon Dioxide Laser is very simple and easy process.
4. The tool wear observed in Carbon Dioxide Laser is very low.

These are the different types of lasers.

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