SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS-
The First Law of Thermodynamics is explained in the post mentioned below-
As mentioned previously, the second law of thermodynamics is associated with the irreversibility, the quality, or the entropy of the process.
The classical statements for the second law of thermodynamics are restated here in several different ways.
1. Heat is naturally transferred always from a high temperature body to a low temperature body, not vice versa.
2. Work is required in order to make heat transfer from a cold temperature body to a high temperature body.
3. It is impossible to construct a heat engine that operates 100 percent thermal efﬁciency.
4. It is impossible to construct a heat engine without a heat loss to the environment.
For example, if a person claims to invent a machine that produces 100 percent work from the energy of heat entered, this satisﬁes the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics but violates the second law of thermodynamics.
All the heat engines lose some energy as heat to the environment.
The efficiency is given in the above picture.
Perpetual motion machines touted in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries violated the second law of thermodynamics. Of course, the machines were never functional and were never exact.
This is the second law of thermodynamics.