* Solar Panels are the panels that are mounted usually on the roof tops which convert the solar energy obtained from the sun to electrical power. The most efficient solar panel in the world converts only 22 % of all the solar energy obtained from sun’s heat to electrical power.
* The solar panels mounted on the building roof – tops converts less than 14 % of the solar energy to electricity.
* Many factors affect the efficiency of solar panels like reflectance efficiency, charge carrier separation efficiency, thermodynamic efficiency, conduction efficiency, quantum efficiency and much more. There are even many losses that are accounted to the quantum efficiency.
* The world’s most solar panel efficiency is 46 % and that was achieved by using a multi – junction concentrator solar cell.
* Thermodynamic efficiency, Quantum efficiency and Ultimate efficiency are the factors deciding the efficiency of solar panels.
* A solar panel or a solar cell operates at a wide range of voltages and currents. The maximum power point is also an important factor for considering the efficiency of solar panels.
* The overall behavior of the solar panels is known as Fill Factor. Fill Factor is directly proportional to Maximum Power Point and inversely proportional to Open Circuit Voltage and Short Circuit Current.
* There are two technical methods to improve the efficiency of solar panels. They are promoting light scattering in the visible spectrum and Radiative Cooling.
* The light – receiving surface of the solar panel must be increased which automatically increases the efficiency of the solar panel. This is due to the more light reflecting on the panels and more photons absorbed by the panels. The best materials for making nano – studs are gold, silver and aluminum.
* A transparent silica crystal layer, when applied to a solar panel acts as a thermal black body and emits heat as infrared into space, cooling the cell.