Machine Tools: Elements and Parts –
A Machine tool may be described as a tool which will be used for holding cutting tools and which will be able to remove metal from the workpiece, i.e., to do work on a workpiece. A machine tool will be used while a required task is to be done like making a square out of an uneven shaped material. It is completely different when compared to a machine and is basically used to convert the power and energy from one source to another source. The machine tools are also known as mother tools. This is so called as we can do no work without the help of machine tools. The energy form produced depends on the type of machine tool used for particular work. There are many special attachments available for the machine tools which will enhance the capability and productivity of the machine tools.
The Basic Elements of the Machine tools are as follows –
Work Holding Device :
A work holding device is used to hold the workpiece at the correct orientation. When the orientation differs, the accuracy and the efficiency of cutting also decreases. Work holding devices must be stable and rigid without any movement. Chuck of a Lathe machine may be used as an example for work holding device.
Tool Holding Device :
A tool holding device is used to hold the cutting tool in the correct position, the same way the work holding tool holds the workpiece. A tool holding device is also used to give enough force to make the contact of the tool and the workpiece. Tool post of a Lathe machine may be used as an example for tool holding device.
Work Motion Mechanism :
Work motion mechanism is used to provide the tool and the workpiece relative speed or sufficient speed to the workpiece for creating te required surface. Headstock of a lathe machine may be used as an example for work motion mechanism.
Tool Motion Mechanism :
Tool motion mechanism is used to provide the tool and the workpiece relative speed or sufficient speed to maintain relative position and to support all the mechanisms.
Support Structures :
Support structures are used to support all the parts & mechanisms and to maintain relative position of both the workpiece and the cutting tool. This is the base and supports all the parts for not to be in movement with respect to the support structures. Bed of a Lathe machine may be used as an example for support structures.