What is Anti – Lock Braking System ? What are the components of Anti – Lock braking System ?
Anti – Lock Braking System is also known as Anti – Skid Braking System in the automobiles. It is a safety system employed in automobiles to maintain friction or traction between the road surface and the tires. Anti – lock Braking System helps prevent the complete locking and avoid uncontrolled skidding. Anti – Lock Braking System uses the principles of Threshold Braking and Cadence Braking which were generally practiced by skilled drivers. Anti – Lock Braking System were drastically improved and were applied to almost all the types of automobiles considering their advantages. These are employed in automobiles based on the capabilities known as Electronic Brakeforce Distribution, Emergency Brake Assist, Electronic Stability Control and Traction Control System.
* The brake controller present in ABS is also known as Controller Anti – Lock Break.
* To illustrate this easily, Anti-Lock Braking System consists of a central electronic control unit with speed sensors attached to all the wheels with a minimum of two hydraulic valves in the brake hydraulics.
* The electronic Control Unit constantly observes the rotational speed of all the wheels.
* When it detects the lowering of speed of any wheel when compared to others, it actuates the valves which reduces the braking force and the wheel moves faster.
* Similarly, if the electronic control unit observes a wheel rotation speeder when compared to others, braking force is reapplied which will decrease the speed of that wheel.
* Anti – Lock Braking System has the capacity of applying or reversing brakes 15 times per second.
* Modern Anti – Lock Braking System has the capacity of applying individual and different pressures for all the four tires of the automobile.
* Additional two more sensors are provided for more reliability and efficiency of the braking.
There are four main components of Anti – Lock braking System.
They are as mentioned below.
1. Speed Sensors –
A speed sensor is used to determine the speed of the vehicle by calculating the speed of the tire. The speed of the vehicle ( rotation ) induces magnetic field around the sensor and the fluctuations in this magnetic field generates voltage.
2. Valves –
There are three valve positions in the Anti – Lock Braking System. When the valve position is open, pressure from master cylinder enters through the brake. When the valve blocks the line, the pressure remains whatever be the pressure applied by the driver. At last valve position, some pressure gets relieved from the brakes. The main problem occurred due to these brakes is the clogging of the valve positions like open, close or changing position.
3. Pump –
The Anti – Lock Braking System has a pump which is used to restore the pressure in the hydraulic brakes after the brakes were applied. This is processed by a signal from the controller.
4. Controller –
The Electronic Control Unit is the controller which receives information from all the wheels of the automobile.
These are the components and working of Anti – Lock Braking System